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美国宇航局局长查尔斯·博尔登答中国网友问

时间:2016年08月16日 信息来源:美国驻华大使馆 点击: 【字体:

美国国家航空航天局(NASA)局长查尔斯·博尔登即将来到北京,并准备回答关于美国太空计划的问题!


他于2009年成为NASA的负责人,并带领一支NASA的全国团队推进美国太空计划的任务和目标,该计划聚焦于21世纪30年代实现火星之旅。

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他从1986年至1994年间四次乘坐航天飞机亲自前往轨道,指挥了两次任务(见图前排左)并在另外两次任务中担任飞行员。


他的任务包括部署哈勃太空望远镜,研究地球任务以及首次美俄联合航天飞机任务。


如果你有任何关于美国太空计划的问题要问博尔登局长,请提出问题,他来解答!


一些幸运的粉丝将被随机选出获得一个NASA小纪念品。


1.     dd:  请问局长先生,火星移民的可行性有多大?

Mr. Administrator, what are the chances that we can live on Mars?

答:NASA正努力争取于21世纪30年代将人类送上火星。人类在火星上生活需要不仅能支持他们在这个星球上生活而且还能工作和开展研究的技术。例如,他们将需要一个栖息场所,在那里创建他们能生活和工作的大气。他们需要节能技术来在他们的栖息场所中种植粮食。他们需要能让他们探索火星的技术:太空服、探测车和工具。NASA正在发明并测试这些技术。NASA还正在努力开发能帮助人类到达火星的技术。NASA正在建设的太空发射系统——这将是世界上最强的火箭——能让我们再次到地球轨道之外去旅行,前往火星这样的目的地。猎户座飞船能将他们送入轨道,它相对而言比较小,是为数星期的短期任务而设计的,因而我们需要开发一个栖息场所,让宇航员能在前往火星的途中居住。

NASA is working to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. Humans living on Mars will need technology not only for living on the planet but also for working and conducting research there. For example, they will need a habitat that creates an atmosphere in which they can live and work. They will need energy efficient technology to grow some of their own food within their habitats. They will need technology to allow them to explore Mars: spacesuits, rovers, and tools. NASA is inventing and testing these technologies now. NASA is also working on developing the technology that will help humans GET to Mars. NASA is building the Space Launch System, which will be the world’s most powerful rocket, enabling us to travel once again beyond Earth’s orbit and on to destinations like Mars. The Orion spacecraft that will get them into orbit is relatively small and designed for shorter missions of a couple weeks, so we’ll need to develop a habitat for the astronauts to live in on a journey to Mars.


2.      李泽崯: 请介绍美国火星移民计划的进展

Please describe your progress on the U.S plan to live on Mars.

 

答:NASA正努力争取于21世纪30年代将人类送上火星。以我们几十年的机器人火星探索、从国际空间站获得的经验以及突破性新技术为基础,强大的新型太空发射系统火箭和猎户座飞船将遨游太空。你可在此关注所有进展:

http://www.nasa.gov/topics/journeytomars

NASA is working hard to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The powerful new Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft will travel into deep space, building on our decades of robotic Mars exploration, lessons learned on the International Space Station, and groundbreaking new technologies. You can follow all the progress at:

http://www.nasa.gov/topics/journeytomars

 

3.      人在旅途 :NASA对30年代的火星之旅有信心吗?

Is NASA confident that it will make a trip to Mars in the 2030s?

 

答:是的! NASA正努力争取于21世纪30年代将人类送上火星。但是,我们将不只是访问火星;全国各地的工程师和科学家们正在努力开发技术(工具和设备),这是航天员们有一天在火星上会用来生活和工作的。NASA的人类探索火星之路始于国际空间站上的近地轨道。现在六名航天员每天都在距离地球?250英里的太空生活,并努力了解太空飞行对人类的影响,并在离我们的家园近距离的地方测试新技术(航天员可以在几个小时内回到地球)。空间站是如此之大,夜间飞行时可以看见它(http://spotthestation.nasa.gov/)。我们的下一步是再往前走一点,进入深空:NASA将派一个机器人团队来捕获一个小行星,并将其送入环绕月球的轨道,在那里,航天员将继续测试和综合新的系统和技术(并可在数天内回到地球)。我们需要有可靠的技术来实现火星任务,因为它单程至少需要六个月的旅程,而总行程可能将近三年,而且沿途没有站点可以拿取备件或购买新设备;如果有东西坏掉了,则至少再需要六个月的时间送到火星上去更换。

Yes! NASA is working to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. But we won’t just be visiting Mars; engineers and scientists around the country are working hard to develop the technologies (tools and equipment) astronauts will use to one day live and work on Mars.  NASA’s path for the human exploration of Mars begins in low-Earth orbit aboard the International Space Station. Right now ~250 miles above Earth, six astronauts are living and working every day to understand the effects of spaceflight on humans and test new technologies close to home (astronauts can be back to Earth in a few hours). The space station is so big it can be seen flying over at night (http://spotthestation.nasa.gov/). Our next step is to move a little farther away, into deep space: NASA will send a robotic mission to capture and move an asteroid to orbit around the moon, where astronauts will continue to test and put together new systems and technologies (and can be back to Earth in a few days). We’ll need to have reliable technology for a mission to Mars because it’s at least a six-month journey one way with the total trip potentially being almost three years, and with no stores along the way at which to pick up spare parts or to buy new equipment; if something breaks it would take at least another six months to get a replacement to Mars. 

 

4.      WOO : 美国有考虑过和中国进行太空合作吗?谢谢!

Has the United States considered cooperating with China on space? Thank you!

 

答:目前,NASA和中国科学院正在就地球和空间科学的多个领域进行合作,包括喜马拉雅地区的冰川研究和月球研究。但是,是的,法律对我们如何与中国国家航天局和其他中国企业交往有限制,除非满足某些条件并遵守某些程序。

Currently, NASA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are cooperating in several areas of Earth and space science, including Himalaya Region Glacier Research and lunar research. But the law does limit how we engage with the China National Space Administration and other Chinese entities unless certain conditions are met and procedures are followed. 

 

5.      辉辉 : 外星探索,人类将如何走出国界之分?

How can human beings eliminate national boundaries in terms of space exploration?

 

答:当我从太空中看地球,我看到我们都生活在一个星球上;我们共享一个海洋。从太空,你看不到国界,从而理解我们都共同生活在地球飞船上。我们必须共同努力,照顾我们生活的这颗星球,并进一步深入探索太阳系和了解宇宙。国际空间站是全球合作的蓝图- 一个让美国领导的多国合作成为可能并推进太空探索方面共同目标的蓝图。一个我们需要遵从的典范,从而把人类送到火星。火星之旅需要所有各方的参与- 政府、行业、学术界和国际伙伴以及公民科学家- 我们需要每一个人。


When I saw Earth from space, I saw that we all live on one planet; we all share one ocean. From space, you don’t see borders and understand that we are all living on spaceship Earth together. To take care of this one planet on which we live and to explore farther into the solar system and understand the universe, we must work together. The International Space Station is the blueprint for global cooperation -- one that enables a U.S.-led multinational partnership and advances shared goals in space exploration. It is a model we will need to follow to send humans to Mars. The journey to Mars requires all hands on deck – government, industry, academic and international partners and citizen scientists – we need everybody.

 

6.      昊昱:未来美国等西方大国是否会加强与中国在国际空间站建设领域的合作?您如何看待中国自主进行的空间站发射项目?

In the future, will the United States and other western powers deepen cooperation with China on the International Space Station? What do you think of China’s own space station program?

 

中国科学院高能物理研究所、中国科学院电工研究所,以及数所中国高校都参与了由美国能源部牵头、安装于国际空间站的阿尔法磁谱仪(Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer /AMS)荷载研发和由其衍生出的科学研究。中国和其他国家也有机会在设于国际空间站的美国国家实验室开展实验。太空科学发展中心负责美国国家实验室的实验,美国公司NanoRacks为实验提供标准界面和硬件。除非能满足一定的条件并遵守一定的程序,否则法律对我们与中国国家航天局以及其他中国机构的合作是有相关限制的。此外,最近,两名NASA航天员参与了欧洲太空局的“洞穴训练”(CAVES)— 通过合作探险评估和锻炼人类行为和绩效技能。今年首位中国航天员应欧洲太空局邀请参与了这个项目。俄罗斯和日本的航天员也参与其中。这是第一个由美国和中国航天员共同参与的培训活动。

The Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of High Energy Physics, the Institute of Electrical Engineering, and several Chinese universities have participated in payload development and resulting science from the U.S. Department of Energy-led Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) payload aboard the International Space Station. China and other countries also have the opportunity to conduct an experiment aboard the U.S. National Laboratory aboard the International Space Station. The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) administers the experiments for the U.S. National Laboratory, and the American company NanoRacks provides the standard interface and hardware for such experiments. The law does limit how we engage with the China National Space Administration and other Chinese entities unless certain conditions and met and procedures are followed.  In addition, recently two NASA astronauts participated in European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut training Cooperative Adventures for Valuing and Exercising Human Behavior and Performance Skills (CAVES). This year marked the first participation by a Chinese astronaut, at ESA’s invitation. Astronauts from Russia and Japan also participated. This is the first training activity that included both American and Chinese astronauts.

 

7.      木野狐-程宇镳:美国的宇航事业将从政府主导向民营过渡,是这样的吗?政府机构如何与民营资本企业沟通和信息交换?

I’ve heard that the U.S. aerospace industry is going to transition to the private sector after having been dominated by the government. Is that so? How do government agencies communicate and exchange information with private companies?

 

答:NASA在牵头人类的火星探索,但这需要各方通力合作—政府、业界、学术界、国际伙伴,以及公民科学家—我们需要所有人的参与。通过公共-私营伙伴关系以及包括合约和太空行动协议在内的各种协议,NASA与私人太空公司合作。NASA创建了商业轨道运输服务系统(Commercial Orbital Transportation Systems/COTS)来促进商业开发,这也促成了NASA与SpaceX 和Orbital ATK签约,由这两家企业为国际空间站提供货物运送服务。目前NASA已经再添一家供应商Sierra Nevada公司。同样地,NASA已经与波音和SpaceX签订合约,由这两家企业负责提供从美国到国际空间站的人员输送服务。他们预计将于2018年开始向空间站运送航天员。NASA 还建立了其他伙伴关系,包括近期刚安装于国际空间站的毕格罗可拓展活动舱(Bigelow Expandable Activity Module/BEAM),以及下一步空间技术探索伙伴关系(NextSTEP partnerships),这项伙伴关系意在完善火星之旅的居住系统和太阳能电推进系统。                                                                     

NASA is leading the human journey to Mars, but it will require all hands on deck – government, industry, academic and international partners and citizen scientists – we need everybody. NASA cooperates with private space companies through private-public partnerships and various types of agreements, including contracts and Space Act Agreements. NASA created the Commercial Orbital Transportation Systems (COTS) program to foster commercial development, and it led to NASA contracting with two companies – SpaceX and Orbital ATK – to provide cargo delivery services to the International Space Station. NASA has now added a third cargo provider – Sierra Nevada Corporation. Similarly, NASA has now contracted with Boeing and SpaceX to provide crew transportation services from the U.S. to the International Space Station. They are expected to begin flying astronauts to the space station in 2018. NASA also has other partnerships, including for the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) recently attached to the space station, and the NextSTEP partnerships to advance habitation systems and solar electric propulsion for the journey to Mars.

 

8.      沥湘澜:我的问题:为什么以往任务里看不到华裔宇航员?还是我不知道

My question is: Why have we not seen Chinese-American astronauts in previous missions? Or did I just not notice?

 

答:焦立中(Leroy Chiao)博士曾四次执行太空任务,三次是在航天飞机上,最后一次是作为国际空间站远征十队的指挥官和科学官。更多关于焦立中的介绍请见http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chiao.html。

Dr. Leroy Chiao flew four missions to space, three on the space shuttle and his last mission as commander and science officer on the 10th Expedition to the International Space Station. Read more about him at http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chiao.html.

 

航天员王赣骏(Taylor Wang)曾于1985年搭乘挑战者号,也曾执行过数次实验任务。王赣骏在中国出生,关于他的介绍请见:http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html

Astronaut Dr. Taylor Wang flew aboard the space shuttle Challenger in 1985 and conducted several experiments. He was born in China. You can read more about him at: http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html


 

1.      大家怎么叫随意吧:请问nasa局长这次来访是否表示中美在空间技术有可能展开官方对话甚至合作?出于国家安全和政治原因,中美之间在空间技术一直互相隔离,这次是不是算是破冰之旅?在此之前nasa的高级官员有来访中国么?

Does this visit by the NASA Administrator mean that there is potential for the United States and China to expand cooperation on space technology, or have official dialogue? Due to reasons of national security and politics, the United States and China have been isolated from each other in the field of space technology. Is this visit an ice-breaking journey? Prior to this trip, have any other high-level NASA officials visited China?

 

答:除非能满足一定的条件并遵守一定的程序,否则法律对我们与中国国家航天局以及其他中国机构的合作是有相关限制的。举例来说,现在NASA正与中国科学院在地球和空间科学的若干领域依法开展合作。

The law does limit how we engage with the China National Space Administration and other Chinese entities unless certain conditions are met and procedures are followed.  Currently, NASA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are cooperating in several areas of Earth and space science, for example, in accordance with the law. 

Xinwenxi: 真有趣…我很好奇小查尔斯∙博尔登是如何绕过NASA与中国的合作禁令的?


2.      新闻戏:Interesting... Wondering how Charles Bolden Jr. bypassed the ban on NASA-China collaboration. [Submitted in English]

 

答:除非能满足一定的条件并遵守一定的程序,否则法律对我们与中国国家航天局以及其他中国机构的合作是有相关限制的。在此次访问中,NASA满足了所有这些条件并遵循正确的程序。举例来说,现在NASA正与中国科学院在地球和空间科学的若干领域依法开展合作。

The law does limit how we engage with the China National Space Administration and other Chinese entities and require certain conditions and met and procedures are followed. NASA met all these conditions and followed the proper procedures for this trip.  Currently, NASA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are cooperating in several areas of Earth and space science, for example, in accordance with the law. 

 

3.      吟松桂:我想知道NASA会在猎户座飞船投入使用后再次登陆月球吗,毕竟到2019年阿波罗登月已经50周年了,而那时候猎户座已经投入使用,这是一个非常好的机会重返月球。

Will NASA’s Orion Spacecraft take man back to the moon? After all, 2019 is the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing and the Orion Spacecraft will go into service at that time. This would be a very good opportunity to return to the moon.

 

答:在NASA发射载人火星任务以前,我们将用大概十年时间通过猎户座飞船将人类送到月球轨道中去,这样我们就可以测试并检验我们到更远的火星去所需的的技术和能力。NASA没有再次将人类送到月球表面的计划,但是如果有国际合作伙伴有执行此类任务的意向,NASA是支持的。

Before NASA sends human missions to Mars, we will spend about a decade sending human missions in the Orion spacecraft to lunar orbits so we can test and prove the technology and capabilities we will need for the much longer journey to Mars. NASA does not plan to send humans again to the surface of the moon, but NASA is supportive of such missions if international partners pursue them.

 

4.      胡糖包:请问火星上真的可以种土豆吗?

Can we actually grow potatoes on Mars?

 

答:最近NASA在国际空间站种植了生菜,这是未来航天员实现在火星上自己种东西自己吃的重要一步。NASA正在寻求扩大农作物的数量和种类以帮助满足未来火星上的航天员的营养需求。更多信息请访问http://www.nasa.gov/feature/nine-real-nasa-technologies-in-the-martian

NASA recently grew lettuce aboard the International Space Station, an important step toward future astronauts growing their own food on Mars. NASA is looking to expand the amount and type of crops to help meet the nutritional needs of future astronauts on Mars. Learn more at: http://www.nasa.gov/feature/nine-real-nasa-technologies-in-the-martian

 

5.      我已经是个葛优了:美国国会禁止一切NASA与中国国家航天局的交流合作?是不是

Is it true that the U.S. Congress forbids exchanges and cooperation between NASA and China National Space Administration?

 

答:不,不是这样的。但是,除非能满足一定的条件并遵守一定的程序,否则法律对我们与中国国家航天局以及其他中国机构的合作是有相关限制的。举例来说,现在NASA正与中国科学院在地球和空间科学的若干领域依法开展合作。

No it does not, but the law does limit how we engage with the China National Space Administration and other Chinese entities unless certain conditions and met and procedures are followed.  Currently, NASA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are cooperating in several areas of Earth and space science, for example, in accordance with the law. 

 

6.      金枪鱼22382001:美国国会不是立法禁止中美交流吗?

Didn’t the U.S. Congress issue a law prohibiting NASA from engaging with China? 

 

答:并没有,但是,除非能满足一定的条件并遵守一定的程序,否则法律对我们与中国国家航天局以及其他中国机构的合作是有相关限制的。举例来说,现在NASA正与中国科学院在地球和空间科学的若干领域依法开展合作。

No it did not, but the law does limit how we engage with the China National Space Administration and other Chinese entities unless certain conditions and met and procedures are followed.  Currently, NASA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are cooperating in several areas of Earth and space science, for example, in accordance with the law. 

 

7.      Wen_Kin:请问他怎么看到美国航天局不能和中国航天局有合作这件事。。

How do you view the fact that NASA cannot cooperate with China National Space Administration?

 

答:除非能满足一定的条件并遵守一定的程序,否则法律对我们与中国国家航天局以及其他中国机构的合作是有相关限制的。举例来说,现在NASA正与中国科学院在地球和空间科学的若干领域依法开展合作。

The law does limit how we engage with the China National Space Administration and other Chinese entities, requiring certain conditions are met and procedures are followed.  Currently, NASA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are cooperating in several areas of Earth and space science, for example, in accordance with the law. 

 

8.       枇杷熟时雨浓:2020年以后空间站只有中国的天宫系列了吧,请问美国宇航局有没有与我国方面合作的计划 cid:image001.gif@01D1F321.8410AA10

It seems that after 2020, China’s Tiangong may be the only space station. Does NASA have any plans to cooperate with China?

 

答:美国致力于将国际空间站的使用寿命至少延长到2024年。我们正在国际空间站开展重要的人类研究和技术开发,以帮助我们为载人火星之旅做准备。下一个阶段我们将测试并验证实现火星之旅所需的进入月球轨道的能力,大约十年,在我们进入下一个阶段前使用这一空间站推进这些研究领域很重要。即使NASA致力于投入更多资源深入太空探索,我们期望在近地轨道有一个强大的私人和国际市场来继续。天宫预计成为那个国际市场的一部分。

The United States has committed to extending the life of the International Space Station at least until 2024. We are conducting important human research and technology development aboard the International Space Station to prepare us for the human journey to Mars.  It is important to use this station to advance these areas of research before we move to the next phase in which we will test and prove capabilities for about a decade in lunar orbits that we will need for the journey to Mars. We expect a robust private and international marketplace in low-Earth orbit to continue even as NASA dedicates more resources to deep space exploration. Tiangong is expected to be part of that international marketplace.


9.      谭老师地理工作室:你们到底有没有去过月球?

Did the United States really land on the moon?

 

答:是的。请在http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/apollo.html 了解更多有关阿波罗计划的内容。了解NASA就一些常见的登月骗局的理论的回答,请见:http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast23feb_2/

Yes. Learn more about the Apollo Program at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/apollo.html. NASA addressed some of the common theories for a moon landing hoax at: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast23feb_2/ 

 

10.  超级界王拳l:美国还会进行登月的行动么? 

Will the United States return to the moon?

 

答:在NASA将人类送上火星之前,我们将大约花十年的时间将人类代表送上月球轨道,从而我们可以测试和验证到达火星的更长的旅程中我们所需要的技术和能力。NASA没有计划再次将人类送到月球表面,但如果国际伙伴有这样的计划,NASA对这样的任务很支持。

Before NASA sends human missions to Mars, we will spend about a decade sending human missions to lunar orbits so we can test and prove the technology and capabilities we will need for the much longer journey to Mars. NASA does not plan to send humans again to the surface of the moon, but NASA is supportive of such missions if international partners pursue them.

 

11.  喵生:人类什么时候可以登上火星? 美国宇航局局长查尔斯·博尔登答中国网友问

When can man land on Mars?

 

答:NASA正在努力在21世纪30年代将人类送上火星。以我们几十年的机器人火星探索(robotic Mars exploration)、在国际空间站上学到的教训以及具有开创性的新技术为基础,强大的新太空发射系统(Space Launch System)火箭和猎户座飞船将遨游深太空。

NASA is working hard to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The powerful new Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft will travel into deep space, building on our decades of robotic Mars exploration, lessons learned on the International Space Station, and groundbreaking new technologies.


 

12.  baicaitou521:能介绍一下NASA的华裔女科学家吗~我对NASA特别感兴趣,如果女的能做这一行太棒了

Can you introduce some female Chinese-American scientists at NASA? I am very interesting in NASA. If females can work in the space industry, that would be awesome.

 

答:我们需要女性在航天工业工作!人们和观点的多样性有助于我们所有人产生更好的想法和解决方案。请在http://women.nasa.gov/了解一些在NASA工作的不可思议的女性。

We need women to work in the space industry! Diversity of people and perspectives helps us all produce better ideas and solutions. Learn about some of the incredible women working at NASA at http://women.nasa.gov/. 


13.  高冷逗比埃塞克斯:NASA有华裔宇航员吗?有的话介绍一下 美国宇航局局长查尔斯·博尔登答中国网友问 

Does NASA have Chinese-American astronauts? If you do, please introduce them. 

 

答:焦立中(Leroy Chiao)博士曾4次飞往太空,其中三次乘坐航天飞机,最后一次时,他担任国际空间站远征10队的指挥官和科学官。了解更多关于他的信息http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chiao.html

Dr. Leroy Chiao flew four missions to space, three on the space shuttle and his last mission as commander and science officer on the 10th Expedition to the International Space Station. Read more about him at http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chiao.html.

 

航天员王赣骏(Taylor Wang)博士于1985年曾搭乘挑战者号航天飞机进行了多次实验。他出生在中国。你可以阅读更多关于他的资料:http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html

Astronaut Dr. Taylor Wang flew aboard the space shuttle Challenger in 1985 and conducted several experiments. He was born in China. You can read more about him at: http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html


14.  郭巨侠的江湖:NASA会怎么与民营航天机构合作?比如X-SPACE,会允许他们直接参与计划吗还是合同外包

How does NASA cooperate with private space companies, such as SpaceX? Will you allow them to join the program directly or will they work as contractors?

 

答:NASA与民营航天公司通过公私伙伴关系和各种协议合作,如合同和太空行动协议(Space Ace Agreements)。NASA创造了商业轨道运输系统(COTS)计划以促进商业发展,此计划促成了NASA与两家公司签订合同——Space X和Orbital ATK公司——向国际空间站提供货物运输服务。NASA现在增加了第三个货物供应商—内华达山脉公司(Sierra Nevada Corporation)。同样,现在NASA已经与波音公司和SpaceX公司签订合同,它们提供从美国到国际空间站的航天员运输服务。预计2018年他们将开始送航天员到国际空间站。NASA还有其他的合作伙伴关系,包括为最近连接到空间站的毕格罗可扩展活动舱(BEAM)建立的伙伴关系和为火星之旅发展居住系统和太阳能电推进系统建立的下一步空间技术探索伙伴关系(NextSTEP)。

NASA cooperates with private space companies through private-public partnerships and various types of agreements, including contracts and Space Act Agreements. NASA created the Commercial Orbital Transportation Systems (COTS) program to foster commercial development, and it led to NASA contracting with two companies – SpaceX and Orbital ATK – to provide cargo delivery services to the International Space Station. NASA has now added a third cargo provider – Sierra Nevada Corporation. Similarly, NASA has now contracted with Boeing and SpaceX to provide crew transportation services from the U.S. to the International Space Station. They are expected to begin flying astronauts to the space station in 2018. NASA also has other partnerships, including for the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) recently attached to the space station, and the NextSTEP partnerships to advance habitation systems and solar electric propulsion for the journey to Mars.

 

15.  狼牙贝雷:请问简要介绍火星之旅的计划路线图以及目前的进展情况?谢谢!

Can you talk briefly about your plans and roadmap for the journey to Mars, as well as the latest progress? Thank you!      

 

答:NASA正在努力在21世纪30年代将人类送上火星。以我们几十年的机器人火星探索(robotic Mars exploration)、在国际空间站上学到的教训以及具有开创性的新技术为基础,强大的新太空发射系统(Space Launch System)火箭和猎户座飞船将遨游深太空。


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